No, you can't. I know what you feel, cuz i had just found an old mineshaft and had melon seeds, saddles, all my tools were out of diamond, i had 5 diamonds, iron, gold, redstone, all that stuff. I just finished harvesting 20 obsidian (what's hard to do, if you don't want to be killed by lava) I had full iron armor, and my way back home, i just fell accidentaly in a little pool of lava, and yeah. All my stuff was gone. Your items are just gonna burn and you'll never see them again.